Increasingly volatile weather conditions may be changing how farmers handle their crop nutrients.
As weather patterns change, some farmers are finding they are losing more nitrogen from their fertilizers to the surrounding environment. In many cases, this is due to increased and unseasonal rainfall followed by long dry spells and warmer winters. This year, we can attribute much of the volatile and unexpected weather to what the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) calls a shifting El Nino to La Nina pattern.
“If we look at the history of corn yields since we started keeping records in the 1860s, we have had four 25-year periods of highly variable corn yields because of variability in the weather,” says Elwynn Taylor, climatologist and agronomist at Iowa State University. “Those four periods were separated by four 18-yearlong periods of consistent crop yields. I believe what we’re seeing is the beginning of a period of variable yields and weather.”
An increase in weather volatility means that bacteria and other microorganisms can become more active earlier than normal, impacting not only crop performance but also nutrients moving off site.
“We might get this really warm weather that we usually don’t have where the soil temperature goes up into the 50s in December,” Taylor says. “Microorganisms in the soil can begin to convert nitrogen to a form that can be lost. Usually if you put on nitrogen in the fall, it will remain with the crop and not be lost to microorganisms in the winter months.”
Kurt Seevers, technical development manager with Verdesian Life Sciences, agrees. “Increased temperatures allow soil bacteria that contribute to nitrogen loss to be active for longer periods of time,” he said. “Variability in rainfall may also play an increasing role in nitrogen loss, if we see heavy rains like we’ve had in some areas of the country the past couple of years. A combination of these factors could increase the likelihood of nitrogen loss.”
Nitrogen loss can lead to reduced yields and increase the potential for disease pressure due to less vigorous plants. Lost nitrogen can end up in ground water if it leaches from the root zone as nitrate, or it can enter the air as ammonia which isn’t good for crops.
Technological advances in recent years have led to the creation of a vast pipeline of products designed to tackle nutrient to the environment and microorganisms. And as weather conditions remain uncertain, it’s important to talk to your local retailer and create a management plan for your farm that takes into account this volatility.
To learn more about products that can protect against nitrogen loss in uncertain weather, visit vlsci.com.
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