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Pulses

Pulses

Pulses are unique in that they produce most of their own nitrogen through rhizobium — a main reason why they’re commonly grown to help improve soil health. Inoculants can provide an added rhizobium boost for optimal growth, while nutrient use efficiency products can help ensure pulses are getting adequate levels of other key nutrients.


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    Ask a Specialist

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  • Fertigation

    Fertigation

  • Foliar

    Foliar

  • In-Furrow

    In-Furrow

  • Inoculant

    Inoculant

  • Post-harvest

    Post-harvest

  • Seed Treatments & Inoculants

    Seed Treatments & Inoculants



  • Aqua-Pam™ is a soil surfactant and water retention aid that improves soil structure, water supply to roots and nutrient use efficiency.

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  • AVAIL® Phosphorus Fertilizer Enhancer reduces the fixation of applied phosphorus, keeping more available for plant uptake and improving fertilizer ROI.

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  • AVAIL® T5 Phosphorus Fertilizer Enhancer reduces the fixation of applied phosphorus, keeping more available for plant uptake and improving fertilizer ROI.

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  • CITRON® Water Herbicide Adjuvant boosts herbicide efficiency and can be used in conjunction with most contact herbicides.

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  • Moist Ferrous Sulfate Heptahydrate | Dried Ferrous Sulfate Heptahydrate | Dried Solu-Grade® Heptahydrate | Dried Ferrous Sulfate Standard Monohydrate | Dried Ferrous Sulfate Granular Monohydrate

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  • Fungi-Phite® is a fast-acting phosphite fungicide proven to fight and prevent disease in more than 20 varieties of specialty crops.

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  • Guard-N® is an inoculant that helps improve nitrogen uptake in over 60 common legume garden crops, including beans, peas, lima beans and soybeans.

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  • Intracept™ offers a proprietary blend of micronutrients to help optimize growth and uniformity in specialty crops through improved nutrient efficiency.

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  • More Than Manure® Nutrient Manager reduces farm odors while protecting your manure’s phosphorus and nitrogen for improved plant uptake.

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  • N-Charge® is a premium peat inoculant specially formulated to increase seed adhesion for peas, lentils, dry edible beans, chickpeas and garbanzo beans.

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  • N-Dure™ is one of the most economical planter box inoculants on the market, improving nitrogen fixation in alfalfa, soybeans and other legumes.

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  • N-Take™ is a premium liquid inoculant for legumes that improves their nitrogen uptake, enhancing their root mass, growth and yield potential.

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  • By slowing the oxidation of phosphorus, Nutri-Phite® enhances nutrient uptake to improve plant health and vigor, leading to increased yield potential.

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  • PolyAmines are amino acid chelated micronutrients designed to prevent or correct trace element deficiencies at all stages of plant growth.

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  • Primacy ALPHA® works inside the plant to stimulate the efficient assimilation and utilization of nutrients for a more consistent quality and yield in flowering and fruit size.

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  • Primo is a premium, concentrated liquid inoculant designed with pulse crops in mind.

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  • Primo GX2 is an in-furrow, multi-action granular inoculant that brings more nitrogen to the plant and performs well in harsh planting conditions.

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  • Safe Zone™ is a liquid soil treatment to reduce soluble salts in the root zone, improving germination, water percolation and nutrient uptake.

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  • Take Off® is a revolutionary nitrogen-management technology that accelerates nutrient acquisition and assimilation as well as nitrogen use efficiency.

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  • Take Off® LS is a revolutionary nitrogen-management technology that accelerates nutrient acquisition and assimilation as well as nitrogen use efficiency.

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What Are the Vegetative Stages of Pulse Growth?

Different types of pulse crops include peas, lentils, chickpeas, dry beans and other legumes harvested for their dry seeds. The specific stages of pulse crop growth will depend, then, on the pulse variety. In general, pulse crops progress from seedling to primary branching or leaf growth stages to flowering, seed filling and maturity. Below is a table showing the typical vegetative states for pea, lentil, and chickpea crops.

Note that pulses are characterized by a long vegetative period as well as being photo and thermosensitive. The amount of growth during each crop stage is determined by the planting environment and levels of available nutrients among other factors. Knowing which stage of growth your pulse crops are in is essential for weed control and the health of the plants.

Pea, Lentil, Chickpea Data source: Stu Brandt, Scott, SK 1993-97 and Perry Miller, Swift Current, SK 1995-98 Stage
Leaf Stages Two leaves unfolded.
Four leaves unfolded.
Six leaves unfolded.
Eight leaves unfolded.
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Folwering Flowering begins. At least one open floret on 50% or more plants.
Flowering 50% complete.
6.0
6.5
Seed fill Seed fill begins. 10% of seeds have reached final size 7.1
Maturity Seed begins to mature. 10% of seed has changed color. 8.1
Maturity complete 90% of seed changed color. Await completion of drydown for direct harvesting. 8.9

Citation: https://apps.msuextension.org/montguide/guide.html?sku=MT200103AG

Nitrogen Fixation in Pulse Crops

Nitrogen fixation in pulse crops involves the assimilation of nitrogen into organic compounds.  For nitrogen fixation to occur in pulse crops, there must be a high enough concentration of Rhizobium bacteria in the soil, specific to different types of pulses. How this works is that Rhizobium bacteria in root nodules fix nitrogen gas from the air and soil by binding it with hydrogen, making the nitrogen available to the plants.

Tips for Planting Pulse Crops

There are a few things to keep in mind when it comes to planting and cultivating pulse crops. Pulses grow best in cool, arid climates with limited rainfall. Plant them earlier in the year to reduce the risk of heat damage that can happen at temperatures higher than 82 degrees Fahrenheit. Often, March will be a good time to plant pulses.

Plant pulse crop seeds one-half inch below the soil’s moisture line at a max depth of three inches, allowing the seeds to get the necessary amount of moisture to germinate. Germination begins when the soil temperature is 38 degrees Fahrenheit, with emergence following in about three weeks. Day length, air temperature, genetic variation and soil bacteria concentrations all influence the growth rate of pulses and progression through reproductive and vegetative stages.

Lastly, don’t forget to watch out for pests, insects and diseases that can negatively impact yields and pulse production. Fungicide application can help with weed control and soil insecticides can keep away pests such as grasshoppers, wireworms and other insects.

Are Inoculants Necessary for Pulse Production?

Pulse crop inoculants are necessary for the plants to get sufficient Rhizobium bacteria needed for nitrogen fixation. Without sufficient Rhizobium bacteria in the soil, nodulation won’t be as successful and yields will be lower. Inoculation of pulses is done either by treating the soil with liquid or dry inoculants or by directly applying a liquid or powder-based inoculant to the seed. When applied correctly, pulse plants will receive the necessary bacteria for nitrogen fixation. Double inoculation using liquid, powder or granular products can produce higher yields. Keep in mind that different types of pulse crops require different types of Rhizobium species for nodulation.

Monitoring Pulse Crop Nodulation

There are certain signs to look for when tracking pulse crop growth and development through vegetative stages. Formation of nodules typically takes two to four weeks for pulse crops, depending on growing conditions, pulse nutrition and rate of nitrogen fixation. To monitor nodulation, carefully dig up pulse plants from different areas of the field. Brush off the dirt from the roots in order to look for nodules, which appear in clumps along the primary and/or secondary roots.

To check for successful fixation in nodules, cut them open and look closely at the interior color. Active nitrogen fixation is indicated by a pink or red color caused by the iron-containing substance called leghemoglobin, which is necessary for fixation. If the inside of your pulse crop nodule is white, green or brown, then fixation isn’t active. Poor nitrogen fixation also leads to yellowed leaves toward the base of the plant prior to flowering. Conversely, pulse crops with nodules greater in size and number is a clear sign of successful nitrogen fixation.

 

Key Considerations for Pulse Crops

NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT

Pulses are commonly used as a rotation crop to improve soil health, since they produce most of their own nitrogen through rhizobium. Inoculants can improve nitrogen creation, but be sure to ensure that the proper inoculant is used for the crop grown.

SOIL AND TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS

Pulses can be grown in a wide range of soils, from sandy to heavy black soils. While the ideal soil is typically well-drained loam, it does vary between different types of pulse crops. Pulses do well in soils with lots of microorganisms and require a pH at or near 6.7 for optimal growth and nutrient availability. Additionally, they utilize moisture very efficiently, and are tolerant to moderate drought stress.

PEST MANAGEMENT

Fortunately, pulses are fairly tolerant to insect and pest damage, but insecticides can be used if insect populations are particularly high. If your pulses are experiencing disease pressure, fungicide along with an integrated pest management plan is key.

Key Nutrients

  • N fixation can be an issue if there are high residual N levels in the soil.
  • Phosphorus — Proper phosphorus levels are essential for plant development and can help ensure N fixation.
  • Micronutrients — Pulses are good at absorbing the micronutrients they need from the soil.

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